PROSTATE CANCER

03 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer which occurs in the prostate gland of the males. The gland produces fluid which nourishes and transport sperms. When the normal cells of prostate gland continuously divide and grow, it turns into malignant cells called adenocarcinoma, which leads to the formation of tumor that can spread and infect the other nearby tissues and other body organs as well.

CAUSES –

  • Adenocarcinoma cells
  • Mutation in abnormal cells results in rapid growth and forms a tumor
  • Hereditary factors

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Blood in semen
  • Difficulty in urination
  • Pain in pelvic area
  • Difficulty in erection

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Urine Incontinence
  • Metastasis – Cancer spreads to other body organs through blood / lymphatic system

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
  • Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)
  • Imaging tests like MRI, Ultrasound
  • Biopsy

TREATMENT-

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Biological therapy
  • Cryoablation for freezing the cancerous cells

RISK FACTORS –

  • Obesity and increasing weight
  • Family history of prostate cancer
  • Risk increases with the increasing age

PREVENTION –

  • Balanced and healthy diet
  • Regular exercise
  • Consume more fruits and green vegetables in the diet
  • Maintain weight

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • It’s the second most common cancer in males worldwide and the fourth most occurring cancer overall.
  • Estimation has shown that around 1.3 million males get affected from prostate cancer worldwide which might increase with years.
  • Males above the age of 50 are more prone to develop this cancer and males with age less than 40 are rarely affected.

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