SINUS INFECTION

16 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Sinus Infection is also referred to as Sinusitis or Rhinosinusitis. It is an inflammation in tissues of sinus cavity which produces mucus for nasal passage to function efficiently. There are four pairs of sinuses which is a hollow space located in the skull. This condition affects the pattern of mucus draining and makes the breathing difficult. It might become uncomfortable and painful as well. Acute sinusitis generally occurs as a result of common cold and gets cured within 10 days.

CAUSES –

  • Viral, bacterial or fungal infections
  • Pollutants or chemicals which trigger formation of mucus
  • Nasal polyp
  • Deviated nasal septum
  • Allergies
  • Other respiratory infections

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Thick, yellow or greenish discharge from the nose or postnasal drainage
  • Nasal obstruction or congestion
  • Facial pain and tenderness
  • Swelling around the eyes
  • Reduced sense of smell and taste
  • Pain in the ear
  • Sore throat
  • Headache and toothache
  • Fever

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Vision problems
  • Infections of skin and bone and other conditions like meningitis
  • Thrombosis

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical Examination
  • CT Scan or MRI
  • Allergy Test
  • Nasal Endoscopy
  • Sample test of nasal and sinus discharge

TREATMENT –

  • Saline nasal spray
  • Nasal corticosteroids
  • Decongestants
  • OTC pain relievers and antibiotics
  • Immunotherapy
  • Surgery

RISK FACTORS –

  • Hay fever or other allergic conditions
  • Asthma
  • Nasal cavity abnormalities such as a deviated nasal septum, nasal polyps or tumors
  • Exposure to passive smoking or other pollutants
  • Auto-immune conditions like HIV or cystic fibrosis

PREVENTIONS –

  • Avoid contact with allergens to manage allergies
  • Maintain hygiene
  • Use humidifier
  • Quit smoking

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Adult generation is more commonly affected than children. Sinus Infection occurs in people whose sinuses has not fully developed.
  • It has been considered as the second most common infection as per the observation.

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