SKIN CANCER

26 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Skin cancer is an unusual cell growth and modifications on the layers of skin. It usually develops on skin exposed to the sun but it can also occur on those areas which are not exposed in sunlight.

Types –

  • Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) – Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) – Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer
  • Melanoma – It’s a life threatening and most dangerous type of skin cancer which can develop anywhere on the skin

CAUSES –

  • Family history and hereditary factors
  • Exposure to UV radiations from sunlight
  • DNA mutations
  • Exposure to high radiation such as X-rays
  • Dealing with certain chemicals such as arsenic and hydrocarbons in tar, oils

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma –
    • Red nodules on skin
    • Crusty flat lesion
  2. Melanoma –
    • Big and dark brownish spots which can develop anywhere like palms, toes, mouth even on genital organs
    • Irregular shapes of the lesions
    • Bleeding in moles with their color and size changed
    • Itching and burning sensations
  3. Basal cell carcinoma signs and symptoms-
    • Waxy bumps
    • Flat and brown flat wounds
    • Healing and returning of bleeding blisters

SYMPTOMS OF OTHER UNCOMMON SKIN CANCERS-

  • Kaposi Sarcoma – Cancer in skin’s blood vessels which results in red or purple spots on the skin or mucous tissues.
  • Merkel Cell Carcinoma – Lustrous nodules develops under the skin and in hair follicles.
  • Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma – Cancer happens in oil glands results into hard and painless bumps which can appear anywhere on the body.

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Skin examination
  • Skin biopsy

TREATMENT –

  • Cryosurgery and cryotherapy
  • Excisional skin cancer surgery
  • Therapies such as chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy and biological therapy

PREVENTION –

  • Use sunscreen every time before going out in sun
  • Wear clothes that cover the complete body to avoid high sun rays.
  • Avoid sun-sensitive medications such as antibiotics.
  • Observe and report skin changes regularly.

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • As per the estimation, around 5.4 million people gets diagnosed with different types of skin cancers worldwide.
  • Around 2-3 million people gets affected with non-melanoma skin cancers with around1,32,000 Melanoma cancer population.
  • Males are highly prone to get affected than females.

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