TETANUS

20 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Tetanus is an illness caused by bacterial toxin which affects brain and nervous system. It leads to pain, contractions and stiffness in the jaw and neck muscles, also known as ‘lockjaw’. It can be life threatening and affects breathing pattern. It is a medical emergency situation which requires prompt treatment. Bacteria spreads in the body through bloodstream and interferes signal between brain and spinal cord nerves which results in muscle spasm and stiffness.

CAUSES –

  • Clostridium tetani bacteria
  • Contaminated soil
  • Wounds, cuts or injuries

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Trismus: Spasm and stiffness in the jaw muscles
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Painful body spasm
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Backward curve in spine

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Fractures or Broken bones
  • Tetanic Seizures
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Laryngospasm
  • Aspiration Pneumonia

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination on the basis of signs and symptoms
  • Blood test

TREATMENT –

  • Medications such as Antitoxins, Antibiotics, Sedatives
  • Tetanus Vaccine
  • Surgery: Surgery involves Debridement, an act of removing dead or contaminated tissues

RISK FACTORS –

  • Skipped vaccination or booster dose
  • Injury or wound from which tetanus spores can enter
  • Burns
  • Surgical wounds
  • Punctured wounds
  • Animal or insect bite

PREVENTIONS –

  • DTaP (Diphtheria And Tetanus Toxoids And Acellular Pertussis) Vaccine
  • Booster dose of Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria And Pertussis)

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

Estimation shows that up to 1 million people suffer from Tetanus every year worldwide.

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