THROMBOCYTOPENIA

26 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Thrombocytopenia or low blood platelet count is a condition where blood doesn’t have enough platelet to help in blood clotting. These are colorless blood cells which stops bleeding by bunching and creating plugs in the blood vessel injuries. In severe cases, it also might give rise to internal bleeding which can be dangerous.

CAUSES –

  1. Decrease in the production of blood platelet by
    • Viral infections
    • Vitamin deficiencies
    • Medicines inducing deficiency in platelet production
    • Certain conditions like Aplastic Anemia, Leukemia, Hepatitis C, HIV etc
  2. Alcohol consumption

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Blood spots on the body also known as purpura
  • Internal bleeding
  • Petechiae on the lower legs
  • Continuous bleeding from the cuts
  • Bleeding from gums or nose
  • Blood visibility in urine or stools
  • Abnormally heavy menstrual flow
  • Fatigue
  • Inflamed spleen
  • Jaundice

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Blood test
  • Bone Marrow test

TREATMENT –

  • Blood or platelet transfusion
  • Medications such as corticosteroids to boost the platelet count
  • Plasma exchange
  • In case of severe conditions, surgery is recommended

PREVENTION –

  • Avoid consumption of alcohol and cigarettes
  • Avoid the usage of heparin products

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Lesser than the normal count of 1, 50,000 to 4, 50,000 platelets leads to thrombocytopenia.
  • It can affect people with any age irrespective of the gender although young females are majorly prone to get affected from this condition.
  • As per the prevalence, 9.5 out of 1, 00,000 cases suffers from Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) every year.

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