TOOTH DECAY

29 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Tooth decay is the condition where the hard surface of the teeth gets permanently damaged by a tiny opening or hole on it. It is a very common condition also known as cavities which can happen at any age by a cause of multiple factors. It has to be treated with utmost care because in severe cases, it can affect the deeper layers of the teeth if left untreated.

CAUSES –

  • Dental Plaque Formation
  • Plaque attacking the tooth resulting in sensitivity
  • Plaque formation in Tooth root

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Severe toothache
  • Sensitivity in the tooth
  • Pain while eating and drinking
  • Visible holes on the teeth

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Severe pain
  • Tooth Abscess as a result of bacterial infection
  • Severe swelling or pus in and around the tooth
  • Permanent damage of the tooth
  • Nutrition deficiency and weight loss

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Dental X- ray
  • Sensitivity test by tapping on the teeth

TREATMENT –

  • Fluoride treatment
  • Dental filling
  • Crown fitting
  • Root canal
  • Removal of tooth

RISK FACTORS –

Molars and premolars are at risk of developing tooth decay the most and these could be the reasons:

  • Bedtime snacking
  • Poor brushing
  • Lack of fluoride intake
  • Dental filling can weaken the tooth
  • Repeated munching and drinking sugary drinks
  • Eating disorders resulting in reduced saliva production

PREVENTION –

  • Healthy brush routine
  • Dental sealant for protecting back teeth
  • Rinsing mouth after eating and drinking
  • Routine dental checkup
  • Avoid having snacks and sugary drinks often

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • The global studies shows that the prevalence rate of this condition is so high that half of the population i.e. 3.58 million people worldwide are suffering from Tooth Decay.
  • Gum diseases can also lead to tooth decay or loss by being the 11th most prevalent condition globally.

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