TUBERCULOSIS

31 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infectious or contagious disease that generally affects the lungs. The bacteria spreads from one person to another by coughs and sneezes unconfined into the air. This bacteria can also spread to other parts of body like brain or spine.

CAUSES –

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria
  • Close contact with infected person

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Continuous coughing for 3-4 weeks
  • Blood in cough
  • Chest pain
  • Tenderness in chest while breathing or coughing
  • Involuntary weight loss
  • Tiredness
  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating during sleep
  • Lack of appetite

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Back Pain and toughness
  • Damage in joints
  • Meningitis
  • Heart, liver or kidney disorders

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Skin test
  • Blood test
  • Imaging test
  • Chest X-rays
  • Sputum Test

TREATMENT –

RISK FACTORS –

  • Pre-existing conditions like HIV or AIDS, diabetes, serious kidney disease, cancers, Crohn’s disease and psoriasis
  • Malnutrition

PREVENTION –

  • TB vaccination
  • Avoid contact with infected individual
  • Wear mask for protection by covering the mouth
  • Keep the room ventilated to avoid the spread of germs

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Around 12 million people gets affected from TB every year which is169 people per 1, 00,000 population.
  • Males are more prone to affected than females with a ratio of 2:1.

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