ULCERATIVE COLITIS

31 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Ulcerative Colitis is a condition which causes inflammation and ulcer in the digestive system. This disease affects the inner lining of the large intestine and rectum hence it is also known as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Ulcerative Colitis cannot be cured but the treatment can reduce the symptoms and prevents it to get severe which is life threatening.

Types –

  • Ulcerative Proctitis
  • Proctosigmoiditis
  • Left-Sided Colitis
  • Pancolitis
  • Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis

CAUSES –

  • Immune system malfunction resulting in low immunity
  • Genetics and hereditary factors
  • Improper diet
  • Environmental issues

SIGNS ANS SYMPTOMS-

  • Diarrhea with blood
  • Abdominal pain
  • Rectal pain and bleeding
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Inability to defecate despite emergency

COMPLICATIONS-

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Colon cancer
  • Extreme thirstiness
  • Formation of blood clot in veins and arteries
  • Inflammation in eyes, skin, joints and colon

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Blood test
  • Stool sample testing
  • Imaging test like MRI, CT Scan, X-ray
  • Colonoscopy

TREATMENT –

  • Antibiotic medications and Anti-inflammatory drugs like corticosteroids
  • Anti-diarrheal medicines
  • Pain relievers
  • Surgery in severe cases

RISK FACTORS –

  • Ageing
  • Excessive alcohol and caffeine consumption
  • Dairy products and fibrous foods in case of lactose intolerance

PREVENTION –

  • Exercise regularly
  • Stay hydrated
  • Consume small meals in intervals
  • Avoid spicy and heavy foods
  • Don’t consume alcohol, caffeine and other carbonated drinks
  • Limit fiber and dairy products

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • The prevalence differs in different regions, the estimated population affected every year can vary from 0.5 to 31.5 per 1, 00,000 population worldwide.
  • It is common in all the generations although family history increases the chances to suffer from Ulcerative Colitis more.

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