18 Feb 2019
Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin, essential in synthesizing blood coagulation proteins; for binding calcium to bones and other tissues. It includes two vitamers: phylloquinone (Vitamin K1) and menaquinone (Vitamin K2). A synthetic form menadione (Vitamin K3) is no longer used due to its toxicity. Deficiency causes serious problems with blood coagulation leading to bleeding, bone weakening, calcification of arteries etc. Symptoms are anaemia, bruising, nosebleeds etc. Liver damage cause vitamin K deficiency. Deficiency can be treated by doctor prescribed medicines and food sources. Dietary supplements are unavailable. Sources include spinach, Swiss chard, lettuce, kiwifruit, cauliflower, dairy products etc.