KIDNEY CANCER

27 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Kidney Cancer also known as renal cancer is the cancer which takes place in the kidney, turning the kidney cells cancerous and making them divide uncontrollably which results in the formation of a tumor in it. Almost all the kidney cancers first starts in the linings of tiny tubes called Renal Cancer Carcinoma. The kidney cancer is quite easy to identify in comparison to other cancers hence it becomes easier to treat it as well. Besides that if the disease had not been treated at the right time, the tumor tends to grow in size affecting the kidney functions directly.

CAUSES –

  • Smoking, drug and alcohol abuse
  • Change in structure of DNA
  • Untreated cancer
  • High BP
  • Obesity
  • High dosage of OTC medication
  • Unhealthy diet {fast food}
  • Use of harmful chemicals in daily routine

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Blood in urine
  • Prolonged fever
  • Swelling in legs and ankles
  • Anemia
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Pain in the area of the kidney or around it.

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Urine test
  • Blood test
  • CT Scan
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  • Ultrasound
  • Renal Arteriogram – Examines the blood supply to tumor
  • Intravenous Pyelogram – X-ray of a kidney to detect the tumor using a dye.
  • Kidney biopsy

TREATMENT –

  • Surgery
  • Nephrectomy – Affected kidney removal (Simple, Radical, Partial)
  • Cryotherapy uses extreme cold to destroy the tumor
  • Radiofrequency ablation for burning the tumor
  • Arterial embolization to stop the blood supply to tumor resulting in shrinking of it
  • Therapies (Biologic, Targeted, Radiation and Chemotherapy)

RISK FACTORS –

  • Smoking and alcohol abuse
  • Obesity
  • High BP
  • Exposure to harmful chemicals and substances
  • Consumption of other medications in excess
  • Genetics
  • Kidney failure, Long Term Dialysis

PREVENTIONS –

  • Quit smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Maintain a balanced healthy diet
  • Avoid harmful chemicals
  • Control high BP and maintain weight
  • Avoid the over-consumption of OTC medications

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • It has been found that 85% of the kidney cancer are majorly Renal Cancer Carcinoma worldwide.
  • It can happen in anyone irrespective of the gender although males are more likely to get affected than females.
  • It is observed that smoking is the major risk factor for the kidney cancer which affects 20 to 30% of the males and 10 to 20% of the females.

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